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A change in dominance represents what is influencing behaviour at a given moment in time, i. All knowledge, i. These types of memory elements imply that knowledge is a concept that does not only convey factual information, but also incorporates actions.

Moving from the cognitive to the social domain causes this deviation. Our focus lies on understanding crowd behaviour rather than describing and reproducing higher cognition, such as learning and planning tasks. The memory elements 3.

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Four goals are considered relevant in a crowd context: subsistence, safety, social and personal goals [6]. They represent the desire of an agent to respectively a preserve energy, b remain safe, c belong to a group, and lastly, d enjoy the festival individually. The more dominant a goal is, the more probable it is that behaviour is chosen that satisfies that goal. For example, if the safety goal is most dominant, because the agent is in a very crowded place, then behaviour 'walking away from high density areas' will become more likely to be chosen.

Goal dominance is the result of the preferred level of satisfaction and the actual satisfaction of that goal, see equation 1. This kind of knowledge assists an agent in interpreting what it sees. Furthermore, facts also allow distinguishing between behavioural options, depending on whether these options are preferable or more relevant given a particular situation. All facts allow the agent to recognise points of interests, other people, or the behaviour that others perform.

Behaviour facts serve another purpose, they support in making a suitable choice in behaviour. Behaviour facts convey expectation values that indicate how satisfying it would be to perform a particular behaviour.

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Facts with a high activation level are easily retrievable, but if it takes too much time to retrieve a fact an agent is not able to use it, i. The activation A of a behavoural rule i is represented by equation 2 and 3. These equations represent a neuron activation equation that increases the activation of the memory elements that are primed and thus becomes more probable or relevant for the agent at that moment Anderson A behaviour rule allows an agent to exhibit specific behaviour in as far as this behaviour is known.

The activation value gives rise to a dynamic hierarchy in behaviour an agent knows. The higher the activation level, the more likely it is that this behaviour will be chosen. The changes in activation over time result in a dynamic ordering of behaviour.

The activation value of a rule is also described in an activation equation see equation 2 and 3. However, the way activation is used is different. For a fact, usage concerns the retrieval time, but for a rule, it concerns the order in which behaviour will be selected before execution. Processes 3. Perception 3. In the CROSS framework, the way perception affects the internal state of an agent distinguishes three types of perceptual influences: priming, physiology update and memory update of cognitive elements.

Depending on what is perceived, the corresponding internal representation is made more active via priming. Those behaviour rules that are perceived in the environment increase, whereas the activity of non-perceived behaviour rules decrease. After priming, the specific content is updated both physiologically physiology update and within memory memory update of goals and facts.

It concerns an update of arousal and any other included context-depending physiological element. The way the levels are updated depends on the context- or theory-related choice within a CROSS model, i. It concerns an update of the goals, i. Each goal has its own satisfaction-function that is based on context-related knowledge and assumptions. Behaviour selection 3. Behaviour selection involves a process of selecting 'suitable' behaviour within a certain amount of time, visualised in figure 3. Suitable behaviour is behaviour that best satisfies the goal that is most dominant at a particular moment.

In the behaviour selection process, time and comparison are the two main parameters. In line with the amount of time an agent has available, the selection process starts by retrieving behaviour with the highest activation level. For as long as there is time left, this behaviour is compared to behaviour that is next in line.

The best behaviour option is chosen and used for further comparison.

The Social Psychology of Crowds

Retrieval of memory elements takes time, which is based on its activation value. Behaviour with the highest activation levels are not only compared first, they are also retrieved faster. The order is based on the activation value of the behaviour rules. Since the activation level is a consequence of perception, the ordering of behaviour rules is dynamic and situated. The comparison itself is represented in a function that attributes a utility value bUtil b to each behaviour under comparison see equation 4.


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The comparison function is based on the expectation bExpect g of behaviour in combination with goal dominance goalDom g. The expectation indicates the expected fulfilment of the corresponding goal g when exhibiting certain behaviour. The comparison value incorporates the contribution of all goals in accordance with their dominance. Figure 3. An agent chooses the 'suitable' behaviour based on the expectations an agent has of a behaviour.

The decision process is affected by time and the order of comparison behaviour options are ordered based on their current activation level. Putting it all together 3.

On the macro level one sees an agent joining another agent and adopting behaviour. On the micro level one is able to follow why each agent is choosing this particular behaviour. Any chosen behaviour can be related to external and internal settings of that agent. On the cognitive level, its internal state consists of goal dominance in which the identity goal is most dominant, shortly followed by its social goal.

Furthermore, the internal representation of behaviour an agent can show has currently the order of type [2,3,0,1]. Both the agent's identity and social goals have been satisfied, however now the social goal has become dominant. In addition to the changes in goal dominance, also the behaviour ranking has changed into [2,0,1,3]. Recall that behaviour ranking is a result of the behaviour that agent 2 perceived that affects the activation level of the behaviour representation via priming. Figure 4. The components of a crowd behaviour model consist of a social and physical environment and multiple agents.

CROSS agents' behaviour is described on the cognitive level, meaning that they decide on what their behaviour will be based on their current internal state f goal dominance, behaviour ranking. However, their internal state will change over time while they interact with their social and physical environment. Goal dominance is less prominent, and the behaviour ranking is now [1,2,0,3] which fits more closely to the behaviour that is shown. Explanation is sought by relating the different levels to each other. The model should represent the integration of the generic CROSS framework with context-specific relevant factors, theories and behaviour under investigation.

This involves specifying both the physical and social environment and the internal world of the agents. Since the CROSS agents in the model are supposed to act at a festival, the CROSS framework is specified in such a way that the agents are able to witness musical entertainment in an outdoor setting and are motivated to do so. The CROSS agents' behaviour is based on the influences of their local surroundings and internal state.

Based on their goals and on the dominance of these goals, a CROSS agent chooses to be close to the stage or with friends, to dance, to go to the toilet or to go to the bar. The colours indicate the agents' dominant goal: yellow: identity listening to music ; pink: social being close to others ; red: safety avoid crowded areas ; brown: subsistence urge to visit the toilet or bar. When orange the agent is inhibited to move. Movie 1. The environment 4. The physical environment involves a festival area and relevant festival objects, such as a bar, toilets, and a stage represented by a grid layer.

The physical representations of the environment allow the agents to distinguish between walkable and non-walkable areas on the festival area as well as identifying specific objects and places that may fulfil the agents' goals, i. For example, listening to music near the stage or having a drink at the bar relate physical location to goal-satisfaction. This social structure is formalised in a network topology. It represents the number of agents, but also social connections who knows who. Although the actual influence of the social environment remains an internal activity in each agent [10] , the network topology serves initialisation, experimenting and logging purposes.

Relevant physical and social environmental factors 4. In the CROSS model, density is included as it has a direct impact on behaviour at the individual level, especially on freedom of movement and on behaviour patterns. For the other factors, the causal mechanisms are not clear, because the reported correlations don't describe how behaviour is affected that explains the group level patterns.

They are therefore not included. For reasons of simplicity only friendship and leadership as a power-relationship were included. Agents 4. Physiology 4. Memory 4. Context, however, specifies what and in what way goals are being satisfied or not.

Developments in the realā€time evaluation of audience behaviour at planned events

Facts, on the other hand are fully context-dependent. Given the festival context with the physical and social environment, facts are needed that allow the festival agent to recognise points of interests such as the stage, bar and toilet area facts ; and other people as friend or leader person facts. Behaviour facts are specified in terms of expectation values for each behaviour: how satisfying would it be to perform a particular behaviour.

For the sake of simplicity of a first implementation, the relevant festival behaviour has been restricted to walking, running, and dancing. Processes 4. Arousal is represented by a threshold function that relates heightened density to a heightened state of alertness arousal level. This is related to the fact that as soon as density imposes restrictions on the freedom of movement, an increasing effect on arousal occurs. The bladder and stomach levels represent 'fullness' following a linear function.

The subsistence goal is directly related to the physiological state, the dominant urge: either bladder or stomach. The safety goal is related to the subjective, local perception of density. The formalisation of the safety goal represents the simple assumption of feeling unsafe when standing in crowded areas or areas that are perceived to be crowded [11]. Local density affects an agent via a sigmoid function a smooth step-function. The relation between perceived density and satisfaction level is identical for each agent.

However, the way this level is interpreted is heterogeneous via the preference of an agent and gives rise to the subjective role that determines the dominance of a goal. The satisfaction of the social goal is formalised as a threshold function related to the number and kind of agents in the immediate vicinity.

The identity goal is related to the distance to the stage, where being closer to the stage increases satisfaction, which is represented in a threshold function as well. In addition to the goals, the memory update also involves the update of behaviour facts. When perceiving a leader behave, this particular behaviour fact is changed by temporary increasing the expectation to satisfying the social goal. CROSS enables you to explain how this pattern arises by relating this group level pattern to the level on which behavioural decision making is performed individual, cognitive level.

The way of influence is traced in providing explanations by relating the group level with the inter- and intra-individual level. Movie 2. Two agents walking towards the toilets and turning around, driven by different goals upperleft corner 5. As the colours in the movie already indicate, a behaviour can be chosen for different reasons since agent 1 was walking because its physiology drives the agent to empty its bladder, whereas other agent is walking because of social reasons.

These reasons can be traced by tracing for instance the goal dominance and the behaviour utility of an agent, e. These variables are so-called life histories of an agent, i. Figure 5. Behaviour choices of an agent Figure 6. The goal dominance of an agent Figure 7. The behaviour utility of an agent Conclusion 6. Australian Journal of Event Tourism Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 51 4 , Need more information about our services?


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