Manual Cultural Studies - Vol. 12.4: The Institutionalization of Cultural Studies: Volume 12

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Specifically, forms of American study of film the last the s were also the great moment of the decades, for instance, have been marked by an discovery of French Theory, particularly in the immensely rich rethinking of the history and area of the analysis of the signs, including historiography of US cinema by US scholars cultural signs, of contemporary society.

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To but it can also be argued that from the s take just one example, in , French film on, US Film Studies becomes cosmopolitan theorist Christian Metz published a long in ways that make the study of it as a critique of metaphoric references to cinema as national tradition less appropriate. Not for language that ignored the growing literature in nothing does the present volume begin with a semiology and linguistics that might make the Mapping of Traditionsthat is then succeeded reference to film language quite literal Metz, by sections whose contributions are far from Perhaps the The decisive introduction of English- most tempting way to map the US tradition of language readers to Theory came in film study is not only to outline its formation with the publication of Peter Wollens Signs but also suggest its dissolution a dissolution and Meaning in the Cinema.

Wollens book of geographical preoccupations that parallels included not only an outline of the semi- perhaps the dissolution of the object of cinema ology of cinema which he argued had its itself in a new age of the audio-visual. New York: Longmans, Green the director seen now as little more than and Co. Wollens volume had tremendous of Getting a Liberal Education. Adler, Mortimer J. John Cumming.

Freeburg, Victor Pictorial Beauty on the Screen. Patterson, Frances Taylor Cinema Craftsmanship. New York: Macmillan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe. Fulton, A. Picture Continuities. Boston: Little Brown. Essays and Criticism Vol. Popular Culture. New York: Routledge.

Jowett, Garth S. Ross, Lillian Picture.

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New York: Rinehart. New York: Dell University Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. University Press. Michael Taylor. Chicago: University Truffaut, Franois Hitchcock. London: BFI. Cinema, Screen, 16 3 : Bloomington: Indiana University ical Study. New York: Dover. The European experience of Film Studies European engagement with theory has been and film scholarship is a particularly diverse so central to the evolving course of European one, and inherently difficult to encapsulate Film Studies.

Scholarship, and, in particular, within a circumscribed review such as historical scholarship, will be addressed in the this. Given so, the approach adopted here final section of the chapter, which explores the will be aimed at managing this difficulty broad spectrum withdrawal from high theory through a partition of that experience into which occurred from the mids, to more six major categories: nineteenth century or less the present. It One of the principal sources of early traditions will be argued that the ancestries of the of film scholarship in Europe was nineteenth- European engagement with film scholarship century realist and naturalist thought.

Natu- are to be found, not just in twentieth-century ralism, in particular, exercised a considerable schools of film theory, but also in much older influence upon early film scholarship in European intellectual and cultural legacies, France, Italy, Spain, Scandinavia and else- and that it is imperative to recognize the where.

Although naturalism had lost much origins of these historical traditions, and their of its intellectual pre-eminence by the time influence upon European film scholarship. The first Emile Zola. Examples of Andrew, Even though film scholars on the European left. In France, s French cinematic impressionist film intellectual groupings such as the Groupe theory, embodied in works such as Louis Octobre, an eclectic congregation of left- Dellucs book Photognie and Lon wing intellectuals founded in by the Moussinacs theoretical manifesto Naissance surrealist poet Jacques Prvert, became active du cinma , arose, to some extent, in in attempting to cultivate film theories and opposition to this naturalist legacy, aspects of strategies informed by the legacy of Zola, naturalism still coursed powerfully through nineteenth-century realism, Marxism and cinematic impressionist discourse, and con- other sources.

In addition to France, the tinued to influence European film theory same line of attack was adopted amongst throughout the silent period. For After , this realist and naturalist example, in Italy, a version of nineteenth- tradition of film scholarship was challenged century naturalism, known as verism, which, by the emergence of the sound film, an like the later novels of Zola, combined a occurrence which posed complications for poetic humanist sensibility with a concern for models of film theory which had been detailed empirical description of landscape founded upon the primacy of the image.

Naturalism provided the irretrievably transformed. French critics such foundation for the two increasingly oppo- as Ren Clair, Marcel LHerbier, Epstein sitional film journals which developed in and Benjamin Fondane initially reacted with fascist Italy during the late s: Bianco suspicion and apprehension to the emergence e Nero, and Cinema; and also influenced of the sound film, whilst others, such as debate over film culture then taking place Moussinac, were more positive in their within the newly established national film response. As Europe drew closer to war again school, the Centro Sperimentale.

Elsewhere in the late s, and critical debate returned in Europe during the s, it was Marxism, to the questions of realism and national rather than naturalism, which was to influence cinema which had first been aired around critics such as Ivor Montagu in Britain, the ideas of Zola in the period, Joris Ivens in Holland and Bertolt Brecht leftist critics such as Moussinac and Claude in Germany. However, as will be argued, Vermorel began to argue once more for the the links between nineteenth-century realism development of a cinema which could build and naturalism and early-twentieth-century on the combination of popular appeal, realistic Marxist and communist thought are close and description, and depiction of large-scale social convoluted.

Thus, Vermorel, argued for overmuch as a theoretical position within a version of LArgent which would European film scholarship. Nevertheless, nat- of dogma cinema that emerged in the s uralism remained an important trope within with the Dogma 95 manifesto and the films Italian cinema from the s until more of Lars von Trier. A type of theoretical movement apart from the central currents of naturalism is also evident in the ideas of the naturalist tradition. Pier Paolo Pasolini, and particularly in his Although nineteenth-century naturalism notion of mythic realism, which combines exercised a considerable influence upon some naturalism with archaic symbolism.

However, early schools of European film scholarship, Pasolinis notion of technical sacracity was that influence was condemned as a reactionary to later evolve into a model of semiotic one by other parties, and particularly by realism, in which he combined elements of film scholars influenced by classical Marxist- naturalism with others derived from post- Leninist thought.

The position on naturalism structuralist and Brechtian theory. In France, adopted within the Soviet Union from the mid- naturalism largely ceased to be discussed at s onwards stemmed from a distinction the theoretical level within film scholarship, which Fredrich Engels had initially drawn although it could be argued that the influence between realism and naturalism in the s.

In more profound account, by connecting the Spain, after , naturalism provided an atomized particular to the unifying general. As in France and Italy, no general theoretical It could be argued, however, that Soviet re-articulation of the naturalist legacy was socialist realism did not embody the more to emerge in the s, although naturalism critical spirit of Engels formula- is clearly evident in the work of filmmakers tion.

In Scandinavia, aspire towards the creation of an impar- realist cinema drew heavily on the nineteenth- tial, chronicle-fashion interpretation of the century naturalist and realist traditions, par- social and historical environment ticularly as in the theatre of Henrik Ibsen , Soviet socialist realism and its gid- and August Strindberg, and these influenced dier offspring, revolutionary romanticism, filmmakers such as Ingmar Bergman and Carl demanded a much more affirmative and Theodor Dreyer.

Although, once more, no steadfast approach to the portrayal of correct theoretical re-articulation of naturalist theory values than he had initially envisioned. Nevertheless, even if Engels position is to be unfolding historical catastrophe: responses preferred to that of Zhdanov, the interpretation which deposited the utopian ideals of the of Zolaesque naturalism in both positions Enlightenment ever deeper within the stone- remains incongruous.

It is one of the stranger dead sarcophagus of modernity. In addition to this higher esteem. In the Leo Tolstoy and other such for legitimation, east, Lukcs ideas provided the foundation became entrenched within the Soviet Union for the development of an enlightened realist from the mids onwards, and, after , film aesthetic which aspired to distinguish within the Soviet Bloc countries of eastern itself from the doctrinaire orthodoxy of the Europe. In these countries, film scholars official communist schools of thought.

This strove diligently to develop dialectical mate- became particularly important after , rialist approaches to film form and analysis when the theory and practice of Italian which were based on the nineteenth-century neorealism, which went on to inspire leftist realist model. Much of this work was of filmmakers and theorists around the world variable quality, pedestrian and doctrinaire, between and , was condemned as and tended to discount the phenomenon of an expression of bourgeois naturalism by the modernized western Marxism in order to commissars of the Soviet bloc.

For all alternative to Zhdanovist socialist realism. Of course, Lukcs was not realism, could be traced to a disheartening the only influence on the eastern European epochal turn of events: the defeat of the Paris and Soviet forms of moderate film scholarship Commune in Following this defeat, which appeared and disappeared periodically the incremental entrenchment of a prevailing between and Neorealism was bourgeois consciousness destroyed the sub- often slipped surreptitiously back into the jective conditions which made a great realism equation.

Films such as Antonionis Il Grido, possible Lukcs, As realism Pasolinis Il Vangelo secondo Matteo and declined, and the undertaking to portray soci- Rosis Cristo si fermato a Eboli inheritors ety as a whole became unsustainable against of the seditious, naturalist lens of s the context of accelerating class inequal- classics such as Rossellinis Germania anno ity, modernism and naturalism emerged as zero were simply too compelling to be unfortunate and despairing responses to the excommunicated. In general, one can characterize the film in favour of Brechtian models of anti-realism scholarship of the Soviet bloc during this and models of ideology and representation period, in an admittedly simplified manner, derived from post-structuralism, from the as dividing into two tendencies.

One was writings on culture by Antonio Gramsci, the dominant Zhdanovist school of socialist and from the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. The other embraced a series of During the seventies and eighties, when anti- attempts to stretch the permissible boundaries realist film theory dominated much of the of the hegemonic formula through recourse critical agenda, this anti-Lukcsian tendency to Lukcs, neorealism, and the European art was extended to the entire nineteenth-century cinema of Bergman, Antonioni and others. And yet, behind Hungary, Poland and the Soviet Union and, of blanket denunciations, there often lurked a course, in the Prague Spring period around profound misunderstanding of the critical , but continued to appear from time to legacy embedded within a nineteenth-century time throughout the period.

After the realist and naturalist tradition which had, fall of the Soviet bloc in , Zhdanovist in point of fact, emerged in opposition to socialist realism almost entirely disappeared bourgeois capitalist hegemony. Similarly, few from eastern European film scholarship. Such scholars were tradition of European realist film scholarship particularly influenced by Lukcs distinction emerged from an arrangement of influences, between realism and naturalism as embodied including those of nineteenth-century in his essay Narrate or Describe , realism and naturalism, but encompassing an essay which became the standard Lukcs romanticism, existentialism, classical text to be delivered to students across the German philosophy and phenomenology.

Although This tradition, which will be described here some Marxist film scholars were able to accept as intuitionist realist, comprises the work Lukcs criticism of naturalism as set out in of John Grierson, Siegfried Kracauer and Narrate or Describe, they were considerably Andr Bazin, and is centrally concerned less inclined to accept his concomitant with the relationship between cinema and repudiation of modernism. Eventually, even modernity. This intuitionist tradition is, Lukcs disciples in eastern Europe, such as therefore, characteristically epochal in Agnes Heller, Ferenc Fehr, Gyrgy Marcus its anticipations for film theory, and sees and Mihly Vajda, abandoned him on this film as offering a prospective cure for the issue Heller, For Grierson, distinction which he drew between the real influenced by neo-Hegelian philosophy as he and the actual.

Writing about his own film was, the existing institutional structures of the Drifters UK, , for example, Grierson state were the invaluable consequence of the argued that the empirical content the actual historical evolution of human society across of its documentary images was organized the centuries, and the most important repos- so as to express general truths the real itory of the human aspiration towards that which existed at a level of abstraction harmony and unity which Grierson believed beyond the empirical, but which could only to be embodied within the Hegelian notion be portrayed through the empirical Aitken, of the Absolute.

It was these institutions, and Such a formulation makes it clear their commitment to the common good over that Griersons early theory of intuitionist private profligacy including, in particular, cinematic realism, like the other theories laissez-faire capitalist profligacy that was of intuitionist realism to be discussed here, one of the great altruistic achievements placed great emphasis on the empirical of mankind in its struggle over a base qualities of the medium, and the ability of egocentrism set deep within human nature.

Like Grierson, level, and the likeness of the absolute at Kracauer was influenced by the classical another. Such a role could never by its German philosophical critique of the Enlight- very extravagant and amorphous nature be enment, and the impact of capitalism on social sharply defined, and this, in conjunction structures.

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  8. Whereas for Grierson, though, it with the level of abstraction implicit within was G. Hegel who was the pre-eminent philosophical idealism, provided Griersons influence, for Kracauer it was Immanuel theory of film with a necessarily intuitionist, Kant, and, in particular, Kants contention rather than rationalist character.

    This dispo- that, within modernity, the spheres of ethics sition was reinforced by Griersons belief, and aesthetics had become subordinated inherited fromAmerican mass societytheory to the dominion of technical reason. This and scientific naturalism, that modern mass notion of the impoverishment of the human society had become so multifaceted that experience within modernity was reinforced traditional models of social communication in Kracauers thinking by the influence of fashioned upon rationalist premises were no Max Webers concepts of disenchantment and longer practicable, and that, as a consequence, instrumental rationality, and, in the s, film had no option but to instil a general by the Frankfurt Schools approach to the and intuitive, rather than conceptual, under- rise of German fascism and the instrumental, standing of things within the public psyche.

    All This intuitionist perspective led Grierson to of this led Kracauer to a particularly negative argue that film should attempt to symbolize conception of the state of the human subject the interdependence and evolution of social within modernity. Following these influences, and like experience In developing this both Grierson and Kracauer, Bazin argued aspect of his thought, Kracauer was influenced that the modern world suffered from a loss by two particular concepts: Edmund Husserls of spirituality, and that the modern individual concept of the Lebenswelt Lifeworld , or was oppressed by dehumanizing, instrumental the phenomenological world of immediate systems and by ideologies.

    Bazins theory experience; and Kants idea of Naturschne of cinematic realism was based on the natural beauty. Kracauer believed that film need to counter this dehumanization by was a privileged medium, generated by the returning greater autonomy to the spectator, condition of modernity in order to redeem and his theory of realist spectatorship is the Lebenswelt for the modern subject. Such grounded in the idea that, when the spec- deliverance would take place through the tator gazes upon the realistic film image, adoption of an orientation associated with that they are able to achieve a degree of self- of Naturschne, where the eye gazes freely realization founded on free thought and across the visual panoplies of the natural action.

    Kracauers realism considered here can be regarded as theory of cinematic realism is, then, best naive realist. These theories are realist in described as a form of phenomenological, contending that film corresponds to certain idealist realism which, like the Kantian aspects of reality. But, such correspondence is aesthetics and Husserlian phenomenology a homological one, and not affected by naive from which it is derived, seeks a basis realist assumptions about films relationship for knowledge and representation through to perceptual reality.

    Nevertheless, cinemas close observation of the material world. All these linked to the disclosure of more abstract theories link intuitionist models of knowledge realities. It is wrong with the human condition within argued that the dense, empirical richness of modernity. Bazin derived this conviction the realistic image allows film to transcend from forms of French Catholic existentialism ideological indoctrination; and this, in turn, espoused by figures such as Charles du makes it clear that these theories of cinematic Bos, Albert Bguin, Emmanuel Mounier and realism emerged in response to what was Marcel Legaut.

    Legaut, for example, was perceived to be an overarching context of a Christian activist, committed to the re- instrumental socialisation and loss of indi- introduction of religious values and debate vidual freedom within the modern situation. Similarly, Mounier was phenomenology, and in the historical context associated with the personalist movement, from which they emerged. Kracauer argues that Another important area to be considered the gathering forces of modernity are fast is that of intuitionist modernism.

    As the approaching the verge of a catastrophic name suggests, intuitionist modernism shares impasse, in which the innermost and most similar influences and themes with intu- negative tendencies of modernity those itionist realism. At the heart of intuitionist of fragmentation, disenchantment and alien- modernism is the conviction, shared by ation would, if left to course freely, intuitionist realism, that intuition, rather than eventually reach such a point of critical reason should be the structuring principle mass that some cataclysmic implosion might underlying a revitalized film aesthetic.

    Once occur. At that point, modernity would either again, the main influences here are Kants plunge further into abstraction, or turn back- theory of aesthetic experience, and Husserlian wards, towards meaning and value Frisby, phenomenology. According to Kant, during As he was writing in the aesthetic experience the mind freely seeks s and s, Kracauer believed this patterns of meaning in the object of aesthetic point of no return was fast approaching contemplation, which should possess the its conclusion, with the growth of Nazism, potential to generate a profusion of meaning and the inevitable slide into world-wide in the mind of the perceiving spectator.

    For him, the events of the This means that the aesthetic judgement is larger period always amounted essentially intuitive and impressionistic in to much more than a struggle between character. This Kantian model of the aesthetic right-wing totalitarianism and democracy, judgement is reinforced, within intuitionist and were, he believed, associated with an modernism, by Husserls emphasis upon the even more historically important struggle detailed exploration of phenomenal imme- for the existential condition of humanity diate experience.

    Both these influences can within a modernity which would either be found expressed within film theory in the become comprehensively inscribed with the Russian formalist tradition, and particularly spirit of instrumental rationality, or, more in Viktor Shklovskys notion of ostranenie, or optimistically, the liberating energy of the to make strange.

    The concept of ostranenie Lebenswelt Hansen, xiii. The same is motivated by the proposal that, in an approach to the historical context can be instrumental modern world, art should present found in the ideas of Grierson and Bazin. Eisensteins late totalitarianism or unbridled capitalism; whilst aesthetic, in particular, in its appropriation Bazin inherited a humanist insistence upon of nineteenth-century romantic and symbol- the imperative of individual freedom which ist forms, and twentieth-century modernist arose in renunciation of the mass slaughter forms, derived from the writings of James of the and periods.

    All Joyce, and others, displays this tendency. As one critic Outside the Soviet Union, intuitionist- has put it, this body of film theory developed modernist film theory founded on German in the face of the full blast of modernity philosophical idealism and other influences Branston, Like The visual was regarded as embodying a Weimar film theory, this school of film schol- primal and underlying mode of communica- arship placed emphasis upon the evocation tion which pre-dated the rise of modernity of subjective experience, the foreground- and offered the possibility of a return to ing of film technique, and the conveying a more valid form of human experience.

    The key concept of French cinematic theorists at the time, including Kracauer, impressionism, photognie, can be associated Rudolf Arnheim and Bla Balzs; and with the intuitionist-modernist concern with Balzs contention that gestural expression ambiguous and indeterminate representation, could amount to a spiritual experience and the related conviction that aesthetic rendered visible amounted to a strikingly experience was primarily non-rational in visual and non-cognitive aesthetic character.

    This is made evident, for example, In both Russia and Germany, though, in Dellucs assertion that explanations here theorists attempted to link this intuitionist are out of place quoted in Ray, 68 approach to the kind of modernist formalism and in Epsteins claim that The cinema implicit in the idea of ostranenie, and in is essentially supernatural quoted in Ray, films such as Man with a Movie Camera Caligari Robert Wiene, Germany, to have been placed on a study of the French surrealist and dada movements of If an intuitionist-modernist approach can the s than on cinematic impressionism.

    That it can also be associated with the third tradition, as we have seen, was influenced by most important, that of French cinematic a number of intellectual factors and also, like impressionism. Here, intuitionist modernism later intuitionist realism, by the context of is influenced by specifically three French history. Intuitionist modernism was informed, nineteenth-century aesthetic traditions: those in the first place, by the critique of modernity of symbolism, naturalism and impressionism.

    The intuitionist-modernist film growth of the worlds first genuine alternative scholarship which emerged from France and film culture. A key figure here was Delluc, Germany during the s and s was who was appointed editor of the journals also deeply affected by the impact of the First Le Film and Cinma in and World War, and the ways in which reason and respectively, and who published one of the rationality had been put to the service of the key works of the impressionist movement, creation of engines of mass destruction.

    The Photognie, in An intellectual film culture of modernism turned to the irrational culture soon began to grow in France, building and intuitive one as a way of escaping from on Dellucs contributions. So, for instance, the dominion of such brutish instrumental in the journal Littrature, edited by rationality. Two principal tendencies can be identified as Naum Gabo and Kasimir Malevich, sought as emerging from the influence of Husserl to develop constructivist techniques for more and Russian formalism.

    One was the focus on aesthetic and symbolic ends. The formalist the ambivalence and impressionistic nature of and constructivist legacy which was handed the aesthetic experience, and it is this which on to Soviet film theory and scholarship developed into the tradition of intuitionist during the s consisted therefore of an modernism, in Russian, German and French incongruous fusion. On the one hand there film scholarship, and is embodied in concepts was an essentially reductive hunt to establish such as ostranenie, photognie and Kracauers the deep structures, aesthetic specificity, and idea of distraction.

    It was the other tendency, rationalized configurations of the medium in largely derived from Husserl and emphasizing order to determine objectively predictable the search for deep structures of meaning forms of representation and spectatorial and determination, that was to have the interpretation.

    On the other hand there greater influence upon a linguistically-based, still remained a tendency towards the de- or language-oriented, school of film theory familiarization of representation in order to which emerged during the s. Instead create more ambivalent portrayals of reality. This early formalist tradition of film in symbolist expressionism: an approach theory is summed up in Eisensteins essay represented in his essay Synchronisation of The Montage of Attractions [] ; Senses in his The Film Sense [] Constructivism a German formative film theorist such as was also the product of a revolutionary Arnheim.

    Arnheim fully shared the Russian consciousness predicated upon the need to and Soviet formalist desire to establish the totally re-create art in the image of a new subject-specificity of the film medium, and Soviet era which would abandon pre-existing went to great lengths to elaborate on how the bourgeois norms. This approach is summed up fundamental aesthetic concepts of film should in Grigori Kozintsev, Leonid Trauberg, Sergei lead to a form of film practice in which the Yutkevich and Georgi Kryzhitskys article special attributes of the medium should be Eccentrism [] , with its rejection clearly and cleanly laid bare to the spectator of figurative art.

    Consequently, the engaged Arnheim, however, betrayed the productivist tendency within constructivism influence of the intuitionist element of the embraced the scientific approach fully, and formalist tradition in arguing that film should repudiated supposedly bourgeois aesthetic attempt to capture something universally concepts such as genius, imagination, art or significant in the particular vi.

    Whilst giving Russian formalism a diverse configu- stressing the point that film should fore- ration. So, for example, whilst constructivist ground the properties of its medium, Arnheim artists such as Vladimir Tatlin, Alexander wished to stop short of a radical formalist Rodchenko and El Lissitsky sought to develop approach which would lead to a pronounced a rationalized, directive approach, others, such anti-realism.

    Arnheims approach here reflected European film scholarship retained an unbro- a wider accommodation between modernism ken interest in the question of realism. It was and realism which took place in both widely held that the aesthetic specificity of Germany and the Soviet Union during the the medium was based on visual realism. The s. The concept of ostranenie elaborated influence of Kant and Husserl led to a focus on by Shklovsky, Boris Tomasevsky and Osip the importance of the empirical, which then Brik during the s, was increasingly became translated into a support for docu- opposed by formalist theorists such as Jan mentary realism.

    Suspicions concerning the Mukurovsky during the s, because, such instrumental role of rationality and language theorists argued, it encouraged excessive led to a desire to engage with visual realism. One outcome of this dispute The influence of the nineteenth-century realist was the emergence of a more realist film and naturalist tradition, as well as Marxism, aesthetic in the Soviet Union during the fuelled the continuing engagement with s also, of course, influenced by the realism.

    The subversive potential of film in official doctrine of Soviet socialist realism. British documentary film movement, French During the s, European formalist film realist and impressionist film theory, and theorists and filmmakers felt impelled to the Italian neorealist movement. Thriving and Contribution among Emerging Adults in Ghana. Stefanos Mastrotheodoros, Michael A. Talias, Frosso Motti-Stefanidi. Jose-Michael Gonzalez, Katerina O.

    Sinclair, Anthony R. Jennifer E. Lansford, Suha M. A Literature Review. More specifically, they expose life as uncontainable, that is, as a power of differentiation that traverses the divide between the living and non-living, organic and inorganic, human and nonhuman, and, ultimately, life and death.

    In this way, they draw attention to excess, processuality and multiplicity at the very core of life itself. Thus understood, life always already surpasses preconceived material and conceptual limits. Finally, while taking Deleuzian feminisms and new materialism as its theoretical ground, the paper suggests that such a revision of the ontology of life may mobilise future conceptualisations of ethics that evade the anthropocentric logic dominant in the humanities and social sciences.

    Her current research project focuses on ecologies of death in the context of contemporary art. In this presentation, I argue that the BJP's victory in the federal elections and their subsequent take over of many state legislatures must be seen in continuity with the rise of the Hindutva Movement in India since the s.

    The electoral victories of the BJP are only a small part of the story of the Hindutva shift which has engendered a much larger transformation at the social and cultural levels. These socio-cultural transformations in India coincide with shifts in global politics end of the Cold War, rise of globalization and economic liberalization in the 90s and much has been written about this. I argue that Hindutva is both a product and response to the postcolonial anxiety, and its emphasis on 'making India great again' is a highly gendered political and socio-cultural project to reclaim masculinity in a wider historical context.

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    Her research engages with the intersections between feminism and postcolonialism, focused on conflict and development issues in South Asia. Vania Smith-Oka Ass. Erzsebet Strausz University of Warwick, UK Creativity as strategy and subversion in the neoliberal university: experiments in critical pedagogy, narrative research, and public engagement Gender and Human Rights Erzsebet Strausz University of Warwick, UK : Creativity as strategy and subversion in the neoliberal university: experiments in critical pedagogy, narrative research, and public engagement.

    Drawing on critical pedagogy and critical theory, in my teaching and research I pursue experimental projects that explicitly engage with the processes of subject formation and their political implications in and beyond the classroom. The paper offers a journey into experimental scholarship that explicitly engages with the political stakes of knowledge practices in our times and seeks out alternatives for inhabiting the modern university, the discipline of IR and contemporary structures of government otherwise.

    Her research focuses on post-structuralist theory, Critical Security Studies, critical pedagogy, as well as creative, experimental and narrative methods. There has been surprisingly little discussion in contemporary biopolitics literature of the role that reproduction plays in the extension and maintenance of the biopolitical management of life.

    This lack of discussion is surprising since, as I will argue, reproduction is central to the operation of biopolitics. Fortunately, the obfuscation of the relations between reproduction and biopolitics appears to be changing, with feminist scholars increasingly engaging with questions of reproduction as they pertain to theories of biopolitics, and vice versa.

    This is at least partly due to the fact that the contemporary politics and practices of reproduction are increasingly subject to risk, uncertainty and the neoliberal commodification of life processes.

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    In this paper, I aim to extend this recent critical engagement between biopolitics and feminism in a theoretical direction. I will briefly examine the way that reproduction has been discussed or not in biopolitical theory to date, and, more importantly, begin to address the question of what an account of biopolitics that takes reproduction — and hence sexual difference — seriously would look like.

    I suggest that such an account would need to do at least two things: first, reconsider the emergence of the biopolitical state in light of feminist critiques of the patriarchal foundations of Western politics; and second, approach the reconceptualization of life through the matrix of sexual difference, which itself must be understood as a central aspect of modern biopolitics.

    Her current research explores issues at the intersection of reproductive ethics, feminist philosophy and Continental philosophy, especially debates on biopolitics. She is currently undertaking projects on prenatal testing and disability, concepts of responsibility in reproductive ethics, and the inheritable genetic modification of human embryos.

    Gender and Human Rights. The so-called crisis of refugees and the destabilization of the Middle East and many countries in Africa, as well as the situation of violence in Central America and Mexico, demand to re-contextualize the migratory question in new terms. Finally, we analyze the consequences of this disturbing increasing of the human insecurity from a gender perspective. The restrictive character of migratory policies is a key factor of the massive and active production of human vulnerability.

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    She has published several books and papers in different philosophical journals as well as many chapters in collective works. Her research has been involved with contemporary political philosophy, feminist theory and applied ethics. Suzanne G. Revista Academica de Musica. She currently studies the use of noise, music and "gender coercion" in the detention and interrogation of prisoners held during the 21st-century's "war on terror," work for which she received the Philip Brett Award given by the LGBTQ Study Group of the American Musicological Society in This talk will consider how animalization of humans and humanization of nonhuman animals may lead to new forms of kinship.

    Sabadell-Nieto, , Demenageries. Thinking of Animals after Derrida co-ed. Berger, , The Portable Cixous ed. This finding is interesting in a number of rather different ways. In later life, Beauvoir often presented herself as simply applying a Sartrean framework in developing her own philosophical position; others have emphasised the influence of Bergson in her early works.

    Whistler and V. Browne Bloomsbury Publishing See also: www2. This paper considers a recent claim that Confucianism and feminism are compatible both being care ethics. I examine some aspects of contemporary care ethics and compare them with Confucian ethics from a feminist viewpoint. I argue that for Confucianism to be made compatible with feminism, the former must be transformed to the extent that it loses its main features.

    Care ethics can be feminist ethics only when women have been made moral subjects because of their perceived ability to care for others. Caring in a Confucian culture is not as much a feminine value than a male value. I do not find Confucian ethics as care ethics to be particularly liberating for women. For Confucianism to be viable in a contemporary democratic world, it must be supplemented by feminist ethics that take justice and equality as the primary values.

    Heisook Kim received her B. She finished her Ph. Since , she is acting in the board of IAPh. This paper explores the production of a gendered neoliberal rationality in post-socialist academic settings. Drawing on interviews conducted with key stakeholders in four major Estonian universities, I trace how three key gender equality policy measures are understood — quotas, workplace flexibility, and the involvement of men in efforts towards gender equality.

    The findings suggest that these key ideas that form the basis of gender equality policy in Western, Nordic and EU contexts are filled with alternative meanings by Estonian academic stakeholders, in ways that distort their original purpose. These meanings primarily serve the interests of the corporate university, enabling and reinforcing the atomisation and exploitation of academic labourers, particularly women. This has implications for devising and implementing gender equality policies in higher education in the post-socialist region, as the solutions applied elsewhere in Europe might not work in the same way in Central-Eastern Europe.

    She is using and and developing intersectionality as a research method. Her latest research focuses on men and masculinities, gender and the neoliberalisation of universities, and critical animal studies. Her recent publications in English are:. Aavik, K. In: M. Flood, with R. Howson Eds. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press, In March five Chinese feminists were detained because of their planned activities against sexual harassment on public transportation.

    This talk will situate the Feminist Five case within a context of ongoing reconfigurations of global geopolitical and symbolic power and its adjoining multilayered competitions between operating and rising global super-powers. This framework will allow me to look at widely available English language media reports on the Feminist Five case in order to suggest why this particular stream of feminism — Chinese non-state sponsored feminist activism —has mobilized an extraordinarily strong transnational support, and to think about the implications that the unintended and often unattended connections to the political processes and actors may have for the feminist organizing.

    The Iconography of Subjectivity , Love and Democracy. Finland is a country which enjoys an international reputation for gender equality, but across this research data women recounted numerous examples of how they navigate working life to manage sexualised and discriminatory encounters and comments. Women reported feeling under constant surveillance for their looks, dress, and behaviours in and outside the workplace. Further, ageing brought with it challenges to remain energetic and youthful and enhance the image of the organisation. Although a considerable body of research exists on gendered aesthetic labor at work in service and hospitality work, there is a limited data on this in business and middle management.

    With an ageing workforce, and women continuing to encounter pressures with their physical appearance, behaviors and dress, they continually develop ways to negotiate their careers. When gender discrimination intersects with ageism in organisations, the resulting gendered ageism can take many forms. Key words: Women managers, aesthetic labour, age and gendered ageism, gendered practices, compliance, resistance. McKie, L. Jyrkinen, M. An International Journal, 30 2 , pp. In the last decade, public discussions of transgenderism have increased exponentially.

    What was once regarded as an unusual or even unfortunate disorder has become an accepted articulation of gendered embodiment as well as a new site for political activism. How did a stigmatized identity become so central to US and European articulations of self and other? What fuels the continued fascination with transgender embodiment and how has the recognition of its legitimacy changed current gender protocols in the US?

    What is the history of gender and how does it sit alongside histories of sexuality, race, ability and health? And how can we study it? Masculinity has generally been theorized as an identity "quietly assumed rather than explicitly articulated" Dudink, In histories of nationbuilding and nationalism in particular, masculinity usually remains unmarked, difficult to find in source-material as it was hidden in seemingly universal categories such as 'mankind' and rarely questioned as a qualifier of soldierdom or citizenship.

    In this talk, I argue that articulations of masculinity can be recovered from the nineteenth century 'national' archive. Interpreting the practice of articulation literally i. Using the case of the process of nationbuilding in Belgium, I will show how citizenship was spoken and sung in explicitly gendered ways throughout the nineteenth century. The talk is based on my recently published monograph on histories of citizenship in Belgium, which takes three 'spaces' in which both masculinity and nationhood were represented, acquired and performed as its point of departure: the primary school for boys, the army and parliament.

    These places were exclusively accessible to men, and in all three of them, vocalization played an important role in imparting knowledge about the nation, representing oneself as part of that nation, and articulating citizenship. In her current work, she studies the history of the human voice. Focusing mainly on practices of voice formation and improvement, she analyses how the voices of children and adults were formed, trained and differentiated by medically and musically trained professionals throughout the nineteenth century.

    Our conversation between three leading scholars in the fields of law, gender studies, anthropology and sexualities seeks to open up what is conventionally seen as the "new" in family configurations or the "marginalised" in kinship. The discussants maintain that both the idea of novelty and the illegitimate emerge from an evolved predisposition to attend to the so-called Euro-American kinship model.

    Not only is this model based on heterosexual relatedness, marriage and blood relations but also certain understandings of class, whiteness and relationship form. Focusing particularly on the theories of kinship, sexuality and law as they interact with studies of relatedness, family and care, the discussants posit that care and support relations are a process of individual lives and historical "events"; not only in how they are affected by and embedded in the state policies and economic currencies but also in how they resist and redescribe norms and state powers.

    By reimagining new ways to reroute the question of "what kinship is all about" the conversants touch the real-world problems, based on the unique empirical research done by each of them. They suggest to find and contrast the off-scene, the illegitimate and the unusual over the future course on research on kinship by investigating domestic domains and the more encompassing legal, political and economic domains in different societies through quantitative and qualitative empirical data, linked to diverse forms of state and political power.

    In this way, the conversation looks to provide future insights on how kinship norms that affect care relations in the margins could be re-imagined through a brave recoupling and rerouting of such variegated frameworks as legislation, economics, politics, sexualities, queer, ethnography and gender. Her socio-legal work is strongly interdisciplinary, drawing on ethnographic and more recently on archival methods. As part of her current research on the category of research integrity, Marie explores modern patterns in the documentation of research regulation and conducts ethnographic observations in the Committee on Publication Ethics COPE.

    In , she is working on a Leverhulme Research Fellowship, 'Figuring 'bad apples': legal-bureaucratic assemblages of research misconduct, Tapaninen is a one of the leading thinkers and teachers on anthropological studies of kinship in Finland. She has carried out archival research on institutional child abandonment in 19th century Europe, Naples in particular.

    Anna-Maria co-edited a book on family reunification , and has published widely on the topic. She has conducted empirical studies in lesbian court cases and queer inheritance practices, and published work on sexualities in law and urban space. She is the co-author of an anthology on the contingent conceptual history of Sittlichkeit in Finland with Tuija Pulkkinen.

    A lot has been written about women in politics and gendering as a social and political process of subject production. Although these are important themes of research, I will argue that we also need to study contemporary forms of governance from a different, feminist position, that of gendered governance. Redirecting our attention to the way gendered governance works out also in different national contexts , I outline an analytical framework for studying it. Gendered governance is a theoretical perspective to study androgynous discourses from a feminist perspective being attentive to struggles, silencing and valorizations.

    I give examples of how it is played out in the framings and policy instruments of neo-liberalism in care.

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    Hanne Marlene Dahl is a professor at the Dept. She works with the state and the governance of care, primarily elderly care in a context of the Nordic welfare state. Increasingly, governance of care is about the travelling of discourses between different institutional levels such as international organizations, national and sub-national levels and it involves struggles between and at various levels including resistance and silencing citizens.

    Dahl studies the logics in the neo-liberal governance of care, their relationship, translation and implications for professional carers, care workers as well as the recipients of care. Dahl has participated in national, European and international research projects, co-edited two books 'Dilemmas of Care in the Nordic Welfare State — Continuity and Change' and 'Europeanization, Care and Gender: Global Complexities' and published widely in international journals. She is currently writing a book entitled "Struggles about Elderly care — a feminist View" for Palgrave to be published in the beginning of The subject of my lecture is rooted in many sources.

    First, it goes back to my previous work on the translation of queer theory into non-Anglo-American context and de-centring Western sexualities. In a way, it is about "diagnosing" the situation of hegemonic over-determination of non-Anglo-American queer studies by Anglo-American one. Second, it is mostly based on my recently finished research project on "Families of choice in Poland" which was 3 years multi-method research concentrated on daily life of non-heterosexual families. Its findings often contest Western theories of same-sex intimacies and relationships.

    Instead they demonstrate how theoretical tools developed in different geo-temporal context need to be tailored to the lived experience of participants. Social factors that have impact on family and intimate life of non-heterosexual people are embedded in their local context and shaped by specific understandings of what it means to build a family and gain any forms of recognition. Therefore, the aim of my lecture is twofold. First, to highlight how geo-temporal conditions shape LGBTQ intimate and family experience and as such unsettle dominant Western knowledge on queer kinship.

    And second, to show the urgent need for a greater attentiveness to spatial and temporal choices in any theorising on queer family and intimate lives. Joanna Mizielinska is Associate Professor at the Institute of Psychology of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Principal Investigator of the project Families of Choice in Poland ,which is the first multi-method project on non-heterosexual families in Poland.

    Her work moves in a large area of intimate relations, gender and sexual politics, and she has published widely on queer families, empirical studies on relatedness, post-social sexualities and translations of queer theory. Specialist on the CEE sexualities, she works currently on the politics of family in Anglo-Saxon queer theory.

    Previously she worked for the University of Social Sciences and Humanities from as an Associate Professor at the Institute of Sociology and as a Director of that Institute She was a Fullbright scholar at Princeton University, where she worked under the supervision of Professor Judith Butler.

    Joanna has also been a visiting researcher in the Helsinki University as well as in Sweden. She has published the book Families of choice in Poland. In research and activism concerning the queer archive-of-feelings, few historians have openly engaged in the discussion on the limits and possibilities of the archive per se. As an historian, I want to provide a critical perspective on this debate and an analysis of historicity, historical methodology and, foremost, fantasy. Is there really such an unambiguous difference between the historian's view on the traditional archive, filled with bureaucratic waste, and the assumed radical archive-of-feelings, consisting of ephemerals and "feelings"?

    Is it not with the future in mind that both the historian and the queer archivist insist on conserving documents and feelings alike? Through an analysis of an art exhibition, described by the curators as presenting a unique and radical queer archival activism that disdains the traditional archive for excluding queer feelings, I reach a different conclusion where the traditional archive may be seen in a new light: or rather, in a new darkness, where the implications of the Lacanian negativity on queer theory and politics are addressed and a too 'future-oriented' version, foremost represented by Halberstam, is criticized.

    This presentation will explore the theoretical and normative challenges to reframe feminist approaches to democracy from intersectional and transnational perspectives and present empirical findings from EU research projects. The recent economic crisis has inspired debates about equality and justice within and beyond the nation state and about the abilities of transnational civil society actors to influence the political agenda.

    Feminist scholarship has started to explore intersections of gender, class and diversity at national and transnational levels and to reframe feminist approaches to gender equality and justice. The transnational challenges include debates about intersections of democracy within the nation state with supra-national EU and global governance. Her publications on democracy and citizenship include: Gender Diversities — Practicing Intersectionality in the European Union.

    Celis, V. Waylen ed. The Puerto Rican poet, essayist, and activist Aurora Levins Morales, whose work revolves around communal authorship, narrative therapy, and digital exchange, teaches us how to think more expansively about the function of literature as well as the nature of the human subject. Her writings about living with multiple chemical sensitivity disorder portray a body whose health is intertwined with a broad ecosystem that includes plants, animals, and chemical toxins as well as the digital ecosystem where she builds corporeal and digital networks.

    Her website, www. My talk will explore the ethical and political possibilities of approaching human life as an inclusive ecology built on relationships across space and across species. I draw in perspectives from feminist literature addressing vulnerability and relationality to help to propose a way forward where care is not considered to be primarily the responsibility of the private family, but as a collective good and a collective responsibility.

    Her research focuses on the everyday regulation and legal recognition of intimate and caring relationships. She uses social science methods including both qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigate the place of law in everyday life, including everyday understandings of law and legal discourse. Scholarship on gender and the European Union EU has consistently pointed out that EU gender equality policies have always been embedded in the logic of the market.

    I provide novel insights into this discussion by arguing that the neoliberal economization of EU gender equality discourses and policies has intensified in the aftermath of the economic crisis. In this presentation, I discuss two examples of this intensification. My second example is the increasing EU-level interest in pushing women in economic decision-making positions and the proposed EU directive on gender balance in corporate boards. Although boardroom quotas regulate markets and corporations in the name of gender equality in a non-neoliberal manner, the debate about them is saturated with neoliberal rationality, which economizes the policy problem and the goals and subjects of the policy.

    As a result the policy debate puts forward depoliticized understandings of gender, the economy and decision-making subjects. Her research interests lie in the field of feminist political theory, and her current research focuses on the neoliberalization of gender equality policies and advocacy and in the European Union and the effects of austerity on feminist politics. Ricoeur in Dialogue with Feminist Philosophers". Paul Ricoeur is one of the most important philosophical anthropologists of the 20th century.

    He develops an extensive notion of the self from different sources: the analytical discussion about personal identity, contemporary theories of narrativity, classical philosophical sources, such as Aristotle, and contemporary phenomenology and hermeneutics. The notion of the self also is one of the central points of debate in feminist theory.

    This paper aims to show the relevance of his notion of the self for postmodern feminist theory, but also to critically assess it. In the course of the argument, the major point of divergence also comes to light, namely, that Ricoeur considers discourse to be a laboratory for thought experiments, while the feminist thinkers consider discourse to be normative, restrictive and exclusive.

    In the second part of the paper the possibility of critique and change are further developed. Ricoeur does not rule out critique, rather interpretation includes distanciation and critique. Finally, his notion of productive imagination explains how new identifications become possible. Her research interests are in the field of phenomenology, hermeneutics and feminist philosophy, and concern the themes of narrative identity, embodiment, ethics, alterity. State of the Art of Humanistics with Douwe van Houten, , books with Dutch translations of Judith Butler, of Michel Foucault, and a historical overview of female philosophers: Vrouwelijke filosofen.

    Een historisch overzicht. In this talk, based on her recent book The Biopolitics of Gender, Repo argues for the need to analyse gender not only discursively, but also genealogically and biopolitically. I will argue for the further development of historically and culturally grounded research underpinned by the continued feminist theorisations of gender. Professor Sue Scott is a sociologist and feminist with specialist interests in gender, sexuality and the body and Childhood.

    In an academic career spanning 35 years Sue has held academic posts at a number of UK Universities including Cambridge and Manchester. She has been a Professor at the Universities of Stirling and Durham At the latter she was also Postgraduate Dean. This nearly three decades long armed conflict has affected the vulnerable groups of the society such as women and children.

    However, on the other hand, in a number of armed conflicts, women are perceived as peacemakers. Over time, politicians elected to national office have become increasingly diverse. Nevertheless, men from majority racial, ethnic, and religious groups continue to dominate national politics in most democratic countries. Political attention directed towards one axis of identity — e. In this presentation, I develop the concept of single-axis politics and its empirical applications. Looking over time, I show that the presence of long-standing ethnic representation policies reduces the likelihood that countries adopt national quotas for women in politics.

    Milla Tiainen toimii postdoc-tutkijana samassa projektissa. In the last several years, feminist scholars of global politics have been challenging traditional frames of security, war and foreign policy suggesting that feminist alternatives would make for better policy options. After the success of Feminist Security Studies, more recently it has been Feminist Foreign Policy that has captured scholars' and practitioners' attention. This seminar considers the politics of these new feminist framings of security, war, foreign policy and asks whether they are really shifting the conversation on global politics.

    If not, can there be a more principled or radical feminist response? And - what would such a challenge look like? Annick T. Her research straddles critical security studies, international theory, and feminist international relations - she is probably best know for her work in the new field of Feminist Security Studies, but she also has a keen interest in issues of methodology, representation, and writing. The paper has three parts. She received her Ph. Ennead II 5.

    On What is Potentially and What Actually. Translation with an Introduction and Commentary Las Vegas Ellen Koskoff is a professor of ethnomusicology at the University of Rochester's Eastman School of Music and the director of ethnomusicology program there. Her writings about jewish music, gender and music, and music cognition are widely published. Her work includes "Women and music in cross-cultural perspective" , "Music in Lubavitcher life" and "A Feminist ethnomusicology" She is a former President of the Society for ethnomusicology and is currently serving as the editor of the society's journal, Ethnomusicology.

    The body has always had a central place in the work of Judith Butler from her earliest writings onwards. Nevertheless, what she understands by the term has shifted and evolved over time. I am particularly interested, in this context, in how Butler treats the notion of vulnerability, especially given the place of this concept in feminist theory. Against those readings that suggest that she identifies vulnerability exclusively with injurability, and thence with a suspect form of humanism predicated on finitude, I will show that, for her, vulnerability refers not just to susceptibility to harm; it also, perhaps more importantly, signals openness to the other, an openness that functions as the condition of im possibility for politics and ethics.

    She has written widely in the area of feminist political theory, particularly on the work of Judith Butler, as well as on questions of identity politics, sexuality, radical democracy, and the body. She is the author of Beyond Identity Politics: feminism, power, and politics and Judith Butler: from norms to politics , and the editor of the forthcoming volume Butler and Ethics Helsinki Collegium of Advanced Studies. The body has been one of the grand discoveries of 20th century philosophy. The politics of difference have been important for human rights struggles, yet lack aspects of commonalities material and embodied that are crucial for present day global politics.

    I will discuss how a material based philosophy of embodiment offers theoretical means to extend a politics of difference to a politics of commonalities. She studied philosophy in Boston and Berlin. She has published books on the philosophies of Nietzsche and Arendt, feminist philosophy, philosophy of embodiment, Beauvoir, and women in the history of philosophy.

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    She is member of the board of FISP International Federation of Philosophical Societies and chair of its gender committee, and she is one of the founders and first chair of board of the United Nations University GEST Programme, a transnational studies and training program in gender equality. Linda has published over peer reviewed articles, books and chapters and been a member of the editorial boards for a range of journals including Sociology, Sociology of Health and Illness, and Work, Employment and Society. Linda is passionate in her support for early career colleagues and runs regular writing courses and retreats on planning and writing publications and research proposals.

    Feminist Theory in Austere Times. What can money do? Can it be put to work to address deepening forms of social and economic inequality associated with the financial crisis, recession and still unfolding politics of austerity? Can we have faith in money as an injustice remedying substance in a crisis ridden and yet still thoroughly financialized reality? While the latter scenario is implied in recent feminist calls to redistribute resources to redress widening socio-economic inequalities under austerity, in this talk I suggest that such a redistributive logic fails to account for the shifting capacities of resources, including the capacities of money.

    While these assumptions were arguably politically efficacious in that moment, in the contemporary present pervasive financialization has involved a material transformation to the capacities of money, a transformation which, I will suggest, leaves its justice distributing potential in doubt. This talk therefore not only calls for careful exploration of the capacities of resources in analyses of crisis, recession and austerity but also for feminist theory to rethink redistributive justice in the light of such transformations. Central to these considerations is money in the wages form.

    Widely published in the areas of social theory, feminist theory and economic sociology her recent research focuses on the restructuring of labour and shifts to the economy-society relation in post-Fordist capitalism. She has also recently contributed to debates concerning the reconstruction of social science through the volumes What is the Empirical? After the cold war, and particularly since September 11, gender equality and sexuality have to a significant degree, come to constitute the ground of politics. Exploring the interrelationships between the symbolic and political economic dimensions of social change will help identify the circumstances under which a feminist discourse whose stated aims are progressive may produce new schemes of inequality, specifically through the production of class difference.

    During the cold war she worked at the Universities of Warsaw and Wroclaw for a number of years. From onwards she has directed the Nowa Huta Study, a long term study of social change in the former Stalinist new town. She has written a number of influential articles on gender , feminism, and health in eastern Europe. Currently she is working on a project about feminism as a mode of governmentality in Poland. This tradition of archival research has been radically reshaped by recent trends in the Humanities.

    Were we ever in it? Would we know it if we saw it now?