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We will NOT be updating the status of the freebies. An untested love is even more challenging. But when your world is turned upside down and in a matter of a day, love can suddenly take a backseat to what was once a near opulent lifestyle but was now a desperate and ongoing fight for survival. The urge to give up is tempting, especially when you start to lose everything you worked hard for and when Lady Fate is throwing everything in her arsenal at you in an effort to discourage you.

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Whether he was that Theban, who from Thebes, or he who from Tmolus, a mountain of Lydia, undertook that famous expedition into India, ' and when he had passed through so many warlike nations, then unknown to the Greeks, reduced none of them all by force, but India, is very uncertain : only this I may venture. As soon as Alexander arrived at Nysa with his army, the citizens sent Aculphis, with thirty of their chief men, to him, to beseech him to leave the liberties of their city entire, for the sake of their god.

The forgery betrays itself at the first blush ; and it were time ill-spent, to pretend to prove it not genuine. Besidfis, this has been already done in the Criti- cism prefixed to this work. For Bacchus having subdued the Indians, and determining to return to Greece, as ah eternal monument of the toils he underwent and the victories he acquired, built this city for a habitation for sych of his soldiers as age or accidents had ren- dered unfit for further military service, in the same manner as thou hast raised Alexandria nigh Mount Caucasus, and another city of the same name in iEgypt, besides others which thou hast and wilt here- after build in different parts of the earth, to the glory of thy name ; for thou hast already achieved higher and greater things than Bacchus.

He called this city Nysa, after the name of his nurse, and the pro- vince depending thereupon, the Nysosan territories. The mountain also which is so near us, he would have denominated Meros, or the thigh, alluding to the fable of his birth from that of Jupiter. From that time, we, the inhabitants of Nysa, have been a free people, and lived peaceably under the protection of our own laws. And as an undoubted token that this place was founded by Bacchus, the ivy, which is to be found no where else throughout all India, flourishes in our territories. And he imagined that the Macedonians would be easily persuaded to join with him herein, and boldly undertake fresh adventures, after the lau- dable example of Bacchus and his followers; for which reason he granted the citizens of Nysa the privi- lege of being governed by their ancient laws, and a full confirmation of their liberties.

If thou hast the welfare of the Nysaeans at heart, take three hun- dred horse, or more, if it be thy pleasure ; but if for one hundred of the best citizens, thou wilt condescend to accept of two hundred of the worst, thou mayst, at thy return hither, expect to find this city in a flourishing condition. However, Aculpbis sent his son and his nephew with him, to learn the art of war. The sight of ivy was pleasing to the Macedonians, they not having seen any in a long time for no parts of India produce it, not even those where vines are common ; wherefore they immediately applied themselves to making garlands, wherewith they crowned their beads, singing, and calling loud upon the god, not only by the name of Dionysus, but by all his other names.

Whether it was summer when he was in Sogdia, is hardly worth disputing; but that it was summer now is evident, by the soldiers gathering vine- leaves, to make themselves garlands, as he tells us in the very same chapter, lib. Arrian talks nothing of vine-leaves, but only of ivy, the leaves of which may be had at any time of the year. He also adds, that the Macedonians found a certain cave upon a mountain in the country of Paropamisus, which the inhabitants, by tradition or rather themselves, to curry favour with their prince , affirmed to be that wherein Prometheus was formerly chained, and that an eagle usually came thither to prey upon his liver; b'ut at last, Hercules passing through that country, slew the eagle, and released him from his imprison- ment.

But he is therein contra- dicted by Arrian, who assures us, that some of the chief citizens went out to meet Alexander, and congratulate him ; and if so, the Macedonians might get drunk freely, and fall asleep as safely as if they had been in their own country. Though, after all, Philostratus, lib. The same author asserts Ihe like stories of Dionysus, which I shall omit, as hardly wortii the relating. When Alexander arrived at the river Indus, he found the bridge fully perfected by Hephfestion, and two large vessels built with thirty oars, besides many more small ones.

What strange con-' juring creatures these commentators are! But then if we deny his supposition, all is wrong, and Curtius and Arrian are irrecon- cileable. It has two mouths in h low nnarsby soil, like those five of the Ister.


Mosaga Moons

Their complexion is more swarthy than any yet known, except the Ethiopians; lind their skill in military affairs far surpasses all the inhabitants of lAsia besides. And as to the overthrow they at last received in Scythia, I cannot certainly affirm, whether it happosed on account of the disadvantage of their station, or any other oversight of Cyrus ; or whether those Persians were really inferior in military affairs to the Scythians by whom they were defeated.

I shall also there describe the laws and customs of India, what mon- strous animals the country produces, and the whole coast of the sea beyond it, with the utmost accuracy. And if it be to be understood of the Pontic, or true Caucasus, it is also false; for Alexander was not then near it. From those mountains almost all the rivers of Asia flow : some into the Red Sea ; some into the Caspian ; others into the Hyrcanian and Pon- tic Ocean. Ptolemy, on the coast of Pamphylia, near Phaselis. Mela, at Sides, a village in Pamphylia, over-against Cilicia; and nobody but Curtius talks of its rise in Cappadocia.

Then, as to tlie rivers, those which run into the Pontic Ocean cannot owe their rise to the Indian, but to the Scythian Caucasus. And whereas he intimates, that some rivers flow into the Caspian, and others into the Hyrcanian Sea, lib. It may perhaps be true, that this mountain may join vf'nh the other Caucasus in Scythia, as Taurus does with this ; for which reason I have already called it by that name, and shall hereafter continue so to do.

This mountain reaches eastward as far as the Indian Ocean.

All the most famous rivers in Asia owe their rise to Mount Taurus and Caucasus ; and many of them flow northward ; some into the Palus Meotis ; some into the Hyrcanian Sea: others direct their course southerly, namely, Euphrates, Tigris, Indus, Hydaspes, Acesines, Hydraoted, Hyphasis, and all those which discharge their waters into the ocean on this side the Ganges ; or which lose themselves by some secret and subterraneous passage; or among the marshes, like the Euphrates. But his stories of the river Araxes and Cilicia, and the mountains of Armenia ; the Pontic Sea, the leserts of Scythia, and Prometheus being chained to a rock, belong properly to the Scythian, or ancient and true Caucasus.

It either; loses its waters in the marshes of Arabia, or enters the Arabian Gulf by some secret or subterraneous passage. But as to the Euphrates itself, or the main stream, Nearchus with bis whole fleet entered the mouth thereof, when he sailed up to Babylon, to meet Alex- ander. See Arrian, lib.

India f is bounded on the east and south sides by the ocean ; northwards by Mount Caucasus, even to the confines of Taurus ; and west- ward, even to the ocean, by the river Indus. So is every country besides, if it be not a circle or a square. If therefore single rivers, and those none of the largest, have that faculty of fructifying the lower grounds near the sea, through which they pass, by the slime and mud which they bring down from the higher country ; I can see no reason why those Indian streams should not do the like, seeing the greatest part of the coun- try is champaign, and the rivers there have their an- nual inundations.

After what manner' Alexander made his bridge over the river Indus, neither Ptolemy nor Aristo- bulus authors of greatest esteem with me give any account ; nor can I, at this distance of time, affirm for certain, whether it was made with ships fastened together, like that of Xerxes over the Hellespont, and those across the Bosphorus and the Ister by Darius; or whether it was one continued piece of work, resting upon piles driven into the bottom of the river. Not that I imagine the extraordinary depth of the river would not admit of one of the other sort; but because so great a work could never have been brought to perfection in so short a time.

Strabo tells us too that a bridge was built, but not how or of what ma- terials : However he assures us, lib. However, the manner of laying bridges with ships over large rivers, used by the Romans, is certainly the most safe and expeditious ; and, as being worthy notice, I shall here describe it. As soon as one of these vessels is thus fixed, they place a second at a convenient distance from her, in the same manner ; then they lay large beams from one to the other, which they cover with planks laid across, and this perfects that part of the work.

And these serve also as a security to the whole, by joining it to the banks on each side. After this manner the work is soon perfected : and notwith- standing the multitude of hands employed on such a fabric, no order nor decorum is wanting; for the ex- hortation of the overseers to some to perform their duty, and their threats to others for neglect thereof, are no manner of hindrance either to their receiving orders, or the quick execution of the whole work.

These sort of bridges were in most request among the old Romans. Alexander having gained the other side, again offered sacrifices to the gods, according to the custom of his country ; and marching forwards, ar- rived at Taxila, a large wealthy city, and the mast populous between Indus and Hydaspes, Taxiles prince of the place, and the Indian inhabitants there- of, received him in a friendly manner ; and he, in return, added as much of the adjacent country f to their territories, as they requested.

And if Curtius had not played us so many slippery tricks before, I could be almost tempted to believe him in this place. Strabo only assures us, lib. This was accordingly performed, tlie lesser vessels being divided into two parts, and those of thirty oars into three. The parts were con- veyed on carriages to the banks of Hydaspes, and there joined together again, and launched into the river. He in the mean time, with the forces which he had brought from Taxila, and five thousand In- dians under the command of Taxiles and the other princes of that country, marched forwards, and en- camped upon the banks of that river.

He has taken no notice of the con- tents of the remaining part of this chapter. Alexander perceiving this, re- solved to divide his army, in the same manner, in- to several small parties, to distract Porus in his resolutions, and render his efforts fruitless ; which being accordingly performed, and the several parties dispatched several ways, some were ordered to lay the country waste in a hostile manner, others to seek out a place where the river might be easily passed over.

Alexander's expedition. But the mischief is. He only tells us, lib. These islands roust be somewhere towards the middle of the river, because the Macedonians swam to them on one side and the Indians on the other, when they met and fought their sham fights. Now if small parties of the Macedo- nians could do this, why might not the whole army have ventured over the same way?

Besides, for Curtius to talk of two kings standing to observe those small parties skirmishing in the middle of the river, is idle and trifling ; they were otherwise employed, one in harass- ing his enemy with false alarms, and the other in observing his motions. SI lay encamped, as well because of the multitude of his elephants, as of his huge army, well accoutred and excellently disciplined, which was in readiness to fall upon them the moment they came out of the'river : besides which, his horses would not be able to gain the other side without much difficulty, -because of the elephants, which would meet them, and fright them exceedingly, both with their unusual noise and aspect: and he was in some doubt whether they could possi- bly be kept upon the hides, and so be conveyed across the river; because the moment they happened to espy the elephants upon the banks before them, they would be seized with fear, and leap into the water.

He therefore resolved to endeavour to gain the other side by stealth, and accordingly thus ordered the matter : His horse being detached to several parts of the bank by night, he ordered loud shouts to be made, an alarm to be sounded, and all things in appearance to be prepared for a speedy passage over; upon which a mighty noise was heard from every quarter. But when this bad continued for several nights, and nothing was attempted, nor any thing happened besides noise, Porus began to desist from his strict observation of the horse, and growing regardless of their din, moved not from the place of his encampment; only he took care to place guards on the several parts of the bank.

This he did for many days together, and made Porus and his army draw up just oppo- site to the place where they expected he would come over. I'hat this is a fair representation of the case, I appeal to any unbiassed reader ; and that it is every tittle false, we have Ptolemy's own word for it, from whose Memoirs Arrian has copied the best part of his History. The Indians continued all this whue in their first encampment ; and if Porus observed anybody's Alexander's expebxtiok.

That rock and island were distant from the body of his camp about one hundred and fifty stadia. He therefore placed guards all along the bank, at such a dbtance -as they could easily perceive each other, and receive and convey commands. Having therefore left Craterus there with his own troop of horse, to which those of the Aracoti and Parapamisae were joined, besides the Macedonian phalanx. But Plutarch, whose credit outweighs his, as- sures us, from Alexander's own letters, p. Many of the vessels which had been before taken to pieces, were conveyed hither, and put together again in the wood, unper- ceived by the enemy ; and among the rest, those of thirty oars.

The winds then being hushed, and the rain ceasing a little before day-light, as many of his foot and horse, as both the hides and ships could carry, passed secretly over into the island, that they might not be discovered by the guards, which Porqs bad placed upon the bank, before they had passed through the island, and were even ready to ascend the batik itself. Alexander himself followed in a vessel of thirty oars, and with him were Ptolemy, Perdiccas, and Lysimachus, three of his body-guards, besides Seieu- cus, one of his favourites, who reigned as king after him, and half of the targeteers; the rest were con- veyed over in other vessels of the same burthen.

As sooli as the army had passed through the island, they approached the bank, in sight of the enemy's out- guards, who rode away with all imaginable expedition to carry the news to Porus. In the mean while Alex- ander, who first ascended the bank, took care to draw up those who ferried over in vessels, and the horse which came with them, and to march before them in order of battle.

But it fell out that the rain the night before had swelled it so prodigiously that the horsemen could not find a place to ford over, and were even afraid that this passage might prove as troublesome as the former : however, at last they found a forda- ble place, and passed through with some difficulty; for the water where the channel was deepest reached up to the breasts of the foot soldiers and to the necks of the horses.

When they had also conquered this, he placed a squadron of horse on the right wing, of the best and choicest he could find, and disposed the equestrian archers to front the whole cavalry : the royal targeteers, under the command of Seleucus, were placed in the foremost rank of foot, and mixed amongst the horse ; next those stood the royal co- hort, then the other companies of targeteers, in their several orders ; and on each side of the phalanx he posted the darters, archers, and Agriaus.

Tauro, the captain of bis archers, was ordered speedily to join him with bis men; for he easily imagined, that if Porus advanced against him with his whole force, he would either be able to defeat them by the strength of his horse, or at least to put them to a stand till bis foot came up. However, in spite of all, Cartius, lib. The same author also tells us, that Alexander at first dispatched his equestrian archers against them, but that himself headed the. Four hundred of the Indian horse were there slain, and among them Porus's son ; and most of their chariots with their horses were taken, they being heavy and troublesome in flight, and even in the battle by rea- son of the slippery soil of the place altogether unser- viceable.

Plutarch, p. Curtius, lib. Arrian assures us, that Porus had two sons slain in this battle ; and Diodorus agrees with him : so that Philostratus is in an error when he affirms, lib. He tells us, lib. Thus had the fear of Hercules, once their enemy, created in them a religious veneration for his memory. Cnrtius immediately after this, lib.

Shall Poras seem taller the higher he is mounted? But no more needs be added to prove the fal- sity of that assertion. The foot possessed the next rank : they were not indeed placed in the same order with the elephants, but so small a way behind, that they seemed to fill up the interspaces.

At the extremities of each wing he placed elephants, bearing huge wood- en towers, wherein were armed men: the foot were defended on each hand by the horse, and the horse by the chariots, which were placed before them. But knowing him- Alexander's expedition. Freinshemius has been endeavouring to lick the bear's cub into a little better form, and has accordingly made bold to alter the original in several places, in spite of all manuscript copies ; bat he has been striving to wash a blackamore white for many gross errors will still re- , main, when he and all the world have done their utmost.

As for example: He tells us first, lib. If he means, as the words import, move the right wing ; pray what right wing had he to move? The Macedonian right wing he could not, Alexander commanded there ; and the Indians he must not, he was an ene- my to them. He tells us immediately after, cap.

And how come they to be so dull as never to find out this incon- veniency before? Besides, the ground whereon the battle was fought, was of Porus's own choosing; and Arrian has told us plainly, in his fifteenth chapter, that the' very reason why he chose that place for the field of battle was, because it was not a slip- pery clay, but a firm sand. S3 meet Caenos ; and this served to break the ranks. The Indian horse, now perceiving their foot in the heat of action, rallied again, and attacked Alexander's horse a second time, but were again forced back with loss, because they were far inferior to them, not only in number but in military discipline, and retreated among the elephants.

And now all Alexander's horse being joined together in one body, not by any corar- mand of his, but by chance, and a casual event in the battle, wherever they fell upon the Indians, they made dreadful havoc among them. H, 30, " ha? It was therefore the bu- siness of the Macedonians to remove them as fast as they could ; which they did by shooting their riders or governors down, and then wounding them with their arrows. The Macedonians perceiving their approach, made way for them, and suffered them to pass out of the battle. The elephants also which were not killed, were every one taken.

Of Alexander's fpot, which consisted at first of six thousand, and gave the first onset, about eighty were lost ; of his eques- trian archers, ten ; of the auxiliary horse, twenty; and ' of all the rest of the troops of horse, about two hun- dred. Diodoros, p. However, Diodorus contradicts Curtius ; and Curtius is hardly consistent with himself; for he tells us, cap. Porus, seeing it was Taxiles, his old enemy, ran against him with bis spear, and had perhaps slain him, if he had not immediately turned away his horse and escaped out of his sight.

How- ever, all this was not sufficient to incense Alexander against him; but he sent others, and after them more, among whom was Meroe, an Indian, because he un- ' derstood that there had been an old friendship be- tween him and Porus, Porus overcome with Meroe's exhortations, and almost dead with thirst, caused his elephant to kneel down, and then alighted from him ; and as soon as he had refreshed himself with a little water, he accompanied Meroe to Alexander. Piutarch, p. Porus answered. As a king ought to be. He was strong and beautiful in body, and of a generous spirit.

Plattrch acquaints us, p. When Alexander had performed all due honours to those who fell in that battle, and had offered the ac- customed sacrifices to the gods for his victory, he ex- hibited gymnic and equestrian exercises upon the banks of the river Hydaspes, in the. He then left Graterus, with some of his forces, there, to finish the cities which he had begun, and to surround them with walls, while him- self marched against the Indians adjacent to Porus's dominions.

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Alexan- der entered their country with part of his auxiliary horse, and some of the choicest out of every company of foot, all his equestrian archers, besides his Agrians and archers, and the whole country was immediately delivered up to him. This whole country he added to the dominions of. After which, having wrought a reconciliation between him and Taxiles, he gave the latter leave to return to is territories. Plutarch seems to glance obliquely at them, by saying, p.

Ambassadors were also sent at this time from the Indians, who were governed by laws of their own making ; and from another Indian prince whose name was Porus. From the description of this river, it is no hard matter to gather, that those authors err not much who give us an account of the breadth of the river Indus ; namely, that it is forty furlongs where widest, but in the narrowest and deepest parts thereof not above fifteen ; and that this is the general breadth all along.

Vide Freinslteim, ad Curt, lib. Curtius himself allows the same, lib. Alexander's expeditiok. This Porus, while Alexander waged war with the other, sent ambassadors to him, promising a free surrender of himself and kingdom, rather out of hatred to the other Porus, than any good-will to Alexander. But when he heard that he was sent back, and knew for a certainty that his kingdom was restored to him much enlarged, he left his own territories and fled, not so much for fear of Alexander as of Porus ; and took with him all who were fit for war, and all whom he could possibly persuade to accompany him in his flight.

The word which M. Le Clerc hints at is, lib. Curtius indeed tells us.

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Then he dispatched Hephaestion with part of his army, namely, two squadrons of foot, and his own and De- metrius's troops of horse, as also half the archers, to take possession of the whole country which that Porus had deserted ; and deliver it into the hands of the other Porus, his friend : and if he found any free Indians upon the banks of the river Hydraotes, he should also give them up to his governors. Then came news to Alexander, that certain free In- dians and Cathseans were resolved to give him battle if he attempted to lead his army thither, and that they were soliciting all their free neighbours to join with them; as also, that they had chosen a city named San- gala, strong by art and nature, where they bad fixed their encampment, and were resolved to fight him.

The Cathaei were a stout people, well skilled in mi- lib, ix. This hill they had environed with their car- riages in a triple range, by which it was fortified as with a triple wall, and their tents were pitched in the middle. He informs us, lib. I am sure I should, if Arrian had not taught me better ; for he tells us in the next chapter,.

See Curt. So that there was nothing unusual in it ; nor does Arrian once intimate that they were startled at the matter at all. The rampart also, which had not been before perfected, or not sufficiently strengthened, was completed that very night by the soldiers. The trumpeters hereupon im- mediately sounded an alarm, and Ptolemy with his troops, ready armed and marshalled, came to oppose them. Besides which, the rampart and the carriages drawn across were no small hinderances to their fur- ther progress; which unforeseen difficulties they being unable to surmount, were forced to retire back into the city, leaving five hundred of their number slain upon the spot In the mean while Porus arrived in the camp, with all the elephants he could procure, and five thousand Indians.

About VOL. Alexander having then buried the dead, according to the custom of his country, dispatched Eumenes,! SI tarily Submitted to Mm. How- ever, Curtius tells us, " Alexander called Porus, who confirmed tTie story. They there- fore agreed to hold a secret consultation in the camp ; where some, who were not so sanguine as the rest, contented themselves with deploring their hard for- tune ; others protested they would follow their king no further, even though he should command them.

As the grounds they went upon were v6ry different, their speeches are as different, however tending to the same end. But as they contain few matters of history but what we have taken notice of elsewhere, and have but little affinity with each other, I shall leave the comparison between them to my reader. Or can you be afraid that any Barbarians whom we may henceforth meet, should give us an overthrow, when all we have hitherto found have yielded to our power?

But if any among you be solicitous to know where we shall end this war ; I answer, that we have but a small part of the grand continent to pass over, before we shall arrive at the river Ganges and the Eastern Ocean, which ocean for it surrounds the earth you shall perceive to join with the Hyrcanian Sea. Wherefore, my dear countrymen and friends, let us push forwards ; toils and dangers are the rewards ef the bold ; a life spent in virtuous actions is pleasant ; and death is no ways terrible to those who have se- cured to themselves an immortal glory.

You cannot but know that our progenitor had never arrived to euch a pitch of glory, as from a mortal to be a god, or even to be accounted so, if he bad loitered away his time at Tirynthe, at Argos, or Peloponnesus, or Thebes. Neither are the labours of Bacchus who is a god of a higher rank than Hercules few or conr temptible. At the very first he greets his majesty thus, in the name of the soldiery : " The gods forbid," says he, lib. And therefore, if you will persist in your design, though unarmed, nay, though naked, we are ready, in any equipage, either to fol- low or go before you.

And by how much the more and the greater the exploits have been, which were performed by thee, and those who accom- panied thee out of their own country ; so much the rather do I judge, that some measures should be set to our toils and hazards. For thou must needs per- ceive how great was the multitude of Macedonians and Grecians which set forth with thee in this expe- dition, and how few of us are now left.

The Thes- salians indeed, when war grew grievous to theu , and their courage began to abate, thou sufferedst to return home from Bactria; but the test of the G re- ft horse left? What rare wages might they have earned? They might have cut themselves out as great estates by their sheers, as the commanding officers did by their swords. But I am quite weary with this stuff; the whole is of a piece, and as such I shall submit it to my readers.

Then shall it be fully in thy own power to lead the army whithersoever thou desirest, and then shall other Macedonians be thy followers ; and thou shalt change those old soldiers for young ones ; those who are wearied out with war, for others fresh and vigorous, to whom war will be no terror, because of the alluring hopes they will have of future rewards. Nay, it is almost impossible to imagine they should not attend thee with the more cheerfulness, when they see those who were the sharers of thy former toils and hazards, return home raised to riches from poverty, and to honours from obscurity.

Thou art an emperor, and at the head of such an army, what enemy can be terrible to thee? But consiaer once for all, that the turns of chance are sudden, and therefore to mortals, however prudent, un. But galling them again the next day; without so much as endeavouring to dissemble his rage, he protested that he would proceed on his intended expedition, but would compel no Macedonian to attend him ; for he doubted not but he should find those who would fol- low him of their own accord. When he had thus said, he retired into his tent, and refused to speak to any of his friends for three whole days, expecting as it often happens in an army that some change of mind should have happened amopg the Macedonians!

But he perceived the same sullen silence still to reign among them, and understood that Ibey were violently enraged against him, but that their resolutions remained fixed. These words were no sooner caught by the multi- tude, but a mighty shout ensued, as an expression of their exceeding joy ; some could not refrain from tears of gladness ; others rushed forwards to the royal pavilion, and there wished their king all future success; because he who was invincible toothers, bad suffered himself to be overcome by them.

All the chief officers.

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To submit to the remonstrances of his soldiers, he thought below him ; and therefore, in all probability, chose to have sacrifices offered for his safe passage ; and as he had an in- fluence over his priest, and his priest could make the gods speak what he pleased, it was deemed the most politic step to publish it abroad, that the omens were inauspicious, and the gods denied him a safe conduct any further, for which reason he chose to return.

Plutarch adds, p. At this juncture Arsaces, governor of the pro- vince next to Abissares's territories, and the brother of Abissares, with many of their friends, came to Alexander, bringing divers rich and valuable gifts, and amongst the rest thirty elephants, as a present from king Abissares, aqd declared that he himself would have attended in person, but was hindered by sickness ; the truth of which being confirmed by mes- have sacrificed upon these altars immediately upon passing over the river; but the altars were built upon the bank of the river Uyphasis, and I cannot find that he ever passed over it.

The monstrous lies and romantic stories which were spread abroad by many of his followers concerning that ex- pedition, were of more force to mislead after-ages, than if he had extended his camp from thence tp the Ganges, and left bedsteads as big as brewers' coolers, shdes like children's cradles, and bitti of bridles as thick as the anchor of a third-rate man of war. And Nearchus in Strabo, lib. The dolphins, which he reckons agiong his. Wherefore, in a letter which he wrote to his mother Olympias concerning the country of India, he told her, among other things, that he be- lieved he had found the fountain of the Nile, ground- ing his conjecture upon the slight and trivial circum- stances before-mentioned.

But when he made a nar- row search into the affair, he was assured by the in- habitants that the river Hydaspes lost its waters in the Acesines, and the Acesines its waters and name in the Indus, which river discharged its stream by two mouths into the ocean, very far from the coun- try of Mgypt : he then caused that passage concern- ing the Nile to be expunged out of his letter ; and having determined to sail down to the oceap by the course aforesaid, he ordered all preparations to be made accordingly.

The rowers and steerers of his vessels were carefully chosen out from among the Phoenicians, Cyprians, Carians, and -Egyptians, who followed his army, and were fit for that purpose. But in the last article Curtius contradicts himself, and in the first, every body else. However, after all, he certainly forgets himself strangely to make Csenus die here in India, lib. His commentators have been dabbling with him here, as they have every where else, and endeavouring to hide his nakedness by their own patch-work coveriDgs.

But hb shame will show itself, in spite of all disguises. Then calling a coun- cil of his friends, at which all the ambassadors of the Indian princes were present, he. See Frcmsh. He tells us abundance of the good' qualities of the inhabitants, and gives us an account of " some notable hunting-dogs in that country, lib. However, immediately after he has told us this story which has no improbability in it, and VOL. As many also of the more remote Indians as were in friendship with Alexander, and heard the claehiog of the oars and the shoots of the rowers, came flocking to the banks of the river, and sang songs after their country manner.

For the Indians, above all other nations, have delighted in music and danciog, ever sioce the time that Dionysius and his Bacchanals were among them. He also once more dispatched Craterus and Hephaestion upon a fresh expedition, and marked out the route they were to take. Secondly, It is much more probable that the greatest part of the baggage was put on board, it being far easier to convey it by water than by land. Thirdly, Had they sailed no more than forty furlongs each day, they had not reached the island of Pattala at the mouth of the river Indus in seven months, as Plutarch, p.

For these reasons Freinshemius imagines it should have been four hundred furlongs, instead of forty, which makes fifty miles. For, in the first place, where the channel is narrow, the water cannot rise up into waves, as he there intimates, it being either the great breadth and ueptb of the water which causes the wind to hoist it up with Siuch violence, or the meeting of the wind and tide, but no tide comes near that place. Secondly, Curtius has stumbled upon the right by mere chance, when he says, lib. But when they reassumed their courage, the masters of the ships ordered the rowers to use their utmost strength to get out of these streights, and by the force of their oars break the violence of the waters, lest they should be sucked in and swallowed up by the eddies.

Diodorus and Arrian call them only two long vessels; and so in all probability would Curtius too, bad be not thought the other sounded bettvr;' and as for truth, be did not much regard it. Havingthere allowed his troops a little time for refresh- ment and rest, he ordered every one to fill all his ves- sels with water; which done, he continued his march the remaining part of that day and all night, and early the next morning arrived at a city, whither many of the Malli had fled for refuge; and this was about four hundred furlongs distant from the Acesines. I shall therefore draw no inferences from a com- parison between any such passages, in the two authors which seem to Quadrate with one another, because I cannot be surethej both treat of the same action.

However, many were slain id the attack, and many more wounded and rendered unserviceable ; upon which they abandoned the city, and retired into the castle ; and that, as beipg se9. But when the Macedonians pressed them on all hands, and Alexander himself pushed on the siege with vigour, the castle was carried by storm, and the Barbarians who had fled thither, to the number of two thousand, were all slain. Perdiccas, marching to the city which he was commanded to besiege, found it quite dismantled. Secondly, to talk of a citadel which has no communication with the city to which it belongs, is nonsense.

It might as well have been placed at fifty miles distance from it. Thus was the castle won ; however some of the Indians, seeing the place ready to be taken, set fire to their own houses, and perished in the flames ; others were slain in the assault : about five thousand of them fell during the siege of that city ; and so great was their valour, that few came alive ipto the enemy's hands. Cur- tius next proceeds to give us an account of a sedition which arose among the soldiers against Alexander, where, among other things, they complained, lib.

Most of his commentators have taken nocice of this place, particularly Mr. Le Clerc, in the Criticism prefixed to this work ; for which reasoa I shall say no more about it. This they accordingly performed, and many Indians were there slain. In the mean while he led his forces to the capital city of the Malli, whither, he was informed, many of the inhabitants of other cities had fled for their better security.

The Indians, seeing him and his forces now in the middle of the river, retired hastily, yet orderly, from the bank, and were pursued by Alexander; but when they perceived that their pursuers were only a party of horse, they faced about, and resolved to give him battle, being about fifty thousand in number. But he has sufficiently exposed the error in the eleventh chapter of this book; and so has Strabo, lib.

But Plu- tarch, Strabo, and Arrian, who have given the best accounts there- of, are against them. Vide Bongarsii Comment, ad Justin, p. On the morrow, bavmg divided his forces, he took the oommaod of one part of the army himself, and hating given the other to Perdiccas, attacked the walls ; and wlien the defendants were unable to endure the violenoe thereof, they fled, and retired kito the castle. Jastm tells us, lib. I cati see tie reasoa why it should not, and better too. Cuftlus says, lib. However, he resolved ra- ther than to continue exposed in that station, where nothing was to be done worthy notice to cast, him- self directly into the castle, imagining that such an action would strike a terror into the besieged, or at least it would add greatly to his glory, and if he died tliere, he should gain the admiration and applause of posterity ; upon which he immediately leaped down into the castle, where fixing himself against the wall, some of the enemy, who rushed forwards upon Him, he slew with his sword, and among the rest the Indian general ; others, as they advanced towards him, he Smote with stones, and beat them back ; but upon their second, and nigher approach, he slew them also with his sword : so that the Barbarians durst now no more attempt to come within his reach, but gathering about him, at some distance, threw their darts, and such other weapons, at him, as they had, or could find, from that station.

However, no author, besides himself, tells us any thing of his entering the town with the other three. When Curtius has suffered Alexander to lean against an old tree, and fight for three whole pages, he tells us, lib. If they climbed up the wall, were none among the whofe army so good at climbing as they? The ladders were all broke before, according to hi9 own account. And again, when those four entered, one by one, on the other side, wherever that side was, the defendants had they not been drunk or asleep might have done their business, one might think, before they could have reached the place where the king ' was.

However, we need be in no great pain upon that account for Arrian has cleared up all those doubts, by assuring us, that they mounted the wall immediately after Alexander, and in the same place, before the ladders broke. Cortius has made Akxander race we this wound among the Oxydracae. For the city belonged to that people, and it was from that people he received the wound.

The Malli indeed designed to have joined their forces with the Oxydracae, and so to have given him battle ; but Alexander's hasty and unexpected. This digression I have made, that the writers of history may be more careful in relating the particular circumstances of great actions, and inquire more narrowly into the truth of whatever they deliver to posterity. Thirdly, It is not very probable he should stir out in seven days, nor before his wound was pretty well healed up. And Plutarch says, p. Fifthly, The report of his death was not among tbe Barbarians or Inifians, for that could not have done bim mncb injury, but it was spread among the Macedonians, and his owa people, which caused him to make as much baste as his health would permit, to show himself among theu, for lear of an insur- rection.

He is lavish of them here, and prodigal, even to a fault. If he goes on at this rate, he may chance to run out bis whole stock of lies, and be forced at last to speak truth, in spite of Us strongest incUnationt te the coattary. Whxm Alexander came to the knowledge of this, he began to fear that an insurrectioii might happen; for which reason, as soon as bis health would admit, he ordered himself to be conveyed to the banks of tlie river Hydraotes, and from thence down the stream to the camp, which was nigh the confluence of the Hydraotes and Acesines, where Hepbsestion had the comoMmd of the army, and Nearchus of the navy.

When the ship which had the king on board approached in view of the camp, he ordered the cover of bis royal pavilion to be hoisted upon the poop thereof, to be seen by the whole army. But neither yet did many believe hrrii to be alive, but that the ship was bringing his dead body ; tilt at last he drew near the shore, and stretched out his right band to the moltitMde. Then a load shout was raised for. And when the targeteers, upon his coming on shore, brought the bed or Utter whereon he had been carried before, he refused it, and ordered his horse to be made ready, which having mounted, he again received the joyful acclamations of the whole army,.

Let all the nations in the world come against us, with the greatest force they can raise ; let them fill the whole earth with arms and men, cover all seas with ships, and oppose us with the most monstrous and unheard-of beasts,. Or which of us could survive you, if we would?

The same author. About this time arrived. But if it seemed good to Alexander, foi;asmucb as he was jiiso. Cortiiif Alexander's expedition. Those thousand, chosen out of the best and clioicest of their nation, were accordingly sent, and with them five hundred chariots of war, with 'their charioteers, over and above his demands. The king then employed himself in settling the lioruts of Philip's government that way, and bounded it with the meeting of the ' Acesines and Indus, leaving him all the Thracian horse, and as many out of other troops as were necessafy for.

He then ordered a city to be built at the confluence of these two rivers, imagining that by the advantage of such a situation it would become rich and populous ; and there he caused some ships to be built. However, he goes on, " Thence he passed on to the Sabracians. Besides, the names of people and countries are so vari- ously given us by authors, that were it not for some particular circumstances in the stories related concerning them, we should be prodigiously at a loss oftentimes to distinguish one from another.

Neither the Xathri nor Ossadii are mentioned by Cur- tius. Then the goyernnient of the whole country, from the con- flluence of the Acesines and Ipdus to the sea, as also. He then adds, " thai Oxyartes was accusedi of some sinister de- signs, on account of a late revolt in Bactria, where his lieutenancy was, but cleared himself so well before the king, that.

This, Curtius adds, lib. Many did, indeed, return from other colonies into their own country, some of whom Curtius un- doubtedly mistook for these. But he says, it was built some where among some nations, whom he vouchsafes not to name. See lib. Plutarch, Sab- bas, p. But Gjonovius'inriagim s this an. Well, search was made, and the herb being found, was applied'to their wounds ; and so' all that were sick were then cured : whereupon the Bar- barians finding that their design had failed, delivered up their. While these things were in agitation, news arrived of the revolt of Miisicanus; wherefore Python the son of Agenor being dispatched with a sufficient force against him, he attacked the cities belonging to him, and demolished some of them, and erected castles and planted garrisons in others ; and having executed his orders, returned to the camp and fleet, carrying Masicanus along with him in chains.

Alexander ordered him to be crucified in his own territories, and with him as many of the Brachmans as had insti- gated him to a revolt. Alexander restored him to his govern- ment, commanding him only to provide all neces- saries for his army when they arrived there. He says, lib. The rest of the army, except those forces which he bad on board his fieet, was commanded by Hephaestion.

His readers may, with good reason, ask him how Craterus came there, because the last time they heard from him he was in India. Craterus seems here to duck down in India, and pop up his head in Gedrosia ; like the British queen, who is said to have sunk at Charing-Cross and risen again at Queen- Hitlie. Alexander having notice of this insult of the Barba- rians, sent othor forces to join with the former and carry on the work with safety. Nigh Pattala the river Indus divides itself into two vast branches, both whereof carry the same name to the sea.

If this be allowed, he differs not mtich from Arrian. But Mr. But what increased their astonishment was, that the tide returning a short while after, began to heave the ships up, so that those which stuck in the mud were gently raised and set afloat again, without receiving any damage ; but those which lay upon the sand were some of them swept away by the fury of the tide and dashed to pieces, and others driven against the bank and destroyed.

These losses being however repaired, according as the time would allow, Alexander sent two long galleys before. Having there sacrificed some bulls to Neptune, be threw them into the sea ; and having poured forth a libation and offered sacrifices, after giving thanks to the god, he threw the golden goblet and other vessels overboard, praying that the fleet, which he now re- solved to send under the command of Nearchus into the Persian Gulf, and thence up the mouths of tlie Euphrates and Tigris, might go safe. Thex returning back to Pattala, he found the castle built, and Python with his forces there, having exe- cuted his orders.

Besides, he is mistaken every way, for Alexander began bis march directly, and Nearchus, the admiral or commander-in- chief of his fleet, was ordered to forbear to set sail, not till the spring, but, on the contrary, till the Etesian winds ceased, which tne inhabitants informed him happened annually about the setting of the. Pleiades or the beginning of November , and that from that season to the winter solstice, or middle of December, was the best sailing along that coast. When be bad sailed far down the left branch, and was now nigh the mouth thereof, be came to a certain lake, formed either by the river Sfyireading wide over a flat country, or by additional streams flowing in from the adjacent parts, and ma- king it appear like a bay in the sea.

Then gomg on shore with a party of horse, he travelled three days along the sea coast to view it, and try if he could find any bays or creeks to secure his fleet from storms. He also ordered many wells to be dug, to supply his navy with water; and returning to Pattala, dispatched a part of his army to help those who were employed in digging the wells along the coast, and orcfered them, when they had finished their work, to re- turn thither. For at that time, while the coun- try is refreshed with great rains, gentle breezes of wind arise, extremely commodious for those who try the sea there, as well with oars as sails.

Nearchus, the admiral of this fleet, lay waiting for this oppor- tunity to set sail. But Alexander, departing from Pattala, marched with a sufficient force to the river Arabius. Then, with the half of his targeteers and ardiers, and some of his troops of auxiliary horse and foot, besides one troop out of every regiment of horse, and all his equestrian archers, he turned to- wards the ocean.

The rest of the forces he committed to Hephaestion.